Sunday, December 28, 2008

THE MATH CONFIRMS THE LOGIC


Blue Eiffel Tower with blue sky after sunset
Celebrating France's presidency of the European Union
Source Own photography by uploader
Date July 2008
Author Gussisaurio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Eiffel Tower (French: Tour Eiffel, /tuʀ ɛfɛl/) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. The tower has become a global icon of France and is one of the most recognizable structures in the world. Named after its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in Paris. When the tower was completed in 1889 it was the world's tallest tower — a title it retained until 1930 when New York City's Chrysler Building (319 m — 1,047 ft tall) was completed.[6] The tower is now the fifth-tallest structure in France and the tallest structure in Paris, with the second-tallest being the Tour Montparnasse (210 m — 689 ft), although that will soon be surpassed by Tour AXA (225.11 m — 738.36 ft).
The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Eiffel originally planned to build the tower in Barcelona, for the Universal Exposition of 1888, but those responsible at the Barcelona city hall thought it was a strange and expensive construction, which did not fit into the design of the city. After the refusal of the Consistory of Barcelona, Eiffel submitted his draft to those responsible for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, where he would build his tower a year later, in 1889. The tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889, and opened on 6 May. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. The risk of accident was great, for unlike modern skyscrapers the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use of movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died.
Novelist Guy de Maupassant — who claimed to hate the tower — supposedly ate lunch in the Tower's restaurant every day. When asked why, he answered that it was the one place in Paris where one could not see the structure. Today, the Tower is widely considered to be a striking piece of structural art.
At the time the tower was built many people were shocked by its daring shape. Eiffel was criticised for the design and accused of trying to create something artistic, or inartistic according to the viewer, without regard to engineering. Eiffel and his engineers, as renowned bridge builders however, understood the importance of wind forces and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world they had to be certain it would withstand the wind. In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said:
“ Now to what phenomenon did I give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be (...) will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole. ”
—translated from the French newspaper Le Temps of 14 February 1887.
A few statistics
All rights reserved - © SETE - 2008
Conception and design of the Eiffel Tower
All rights reserved - © SETE - 2008
http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/dossiers/page/construction.html
Construction of the Tower
All rights reserved - © SETE - 2008
"A Bonanza in Paris".
"A Bonanza in Paris".
View in Google Maps (27169 downloads)
From Official Google Earth Download Site
Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986–1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower.
Images of the tower have long been in the public domain; however, in 2003 SNTE (Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel) installed a new lighting display on the tower. The effect was to put any night-time image of the tower and its lighting display under copyright. As a result, it was no longer legal to publish contemporary photographs of the tower at night without permission in some countries.
The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for SNTE, Stéphane Dieu, commented in January 2005, "It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn't used in ways we don't approve." However, it also potentially has the effect of prohibiting tourist photographs of the tower at night from being published as well as hindering non profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the tower.
In a recent decision, the Court of Cassation ruled that copyright could not be claimed over images including a copyrighted building if the photograph encompassed a larger area. This seems to indicate that SNTE cannot claim copyright on photographs of Paris incorporating the lit tower.
In some jurisdictions, this claim of copyright is explicitly disallowed. In Irish copyright law, works "permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public" may be freely included in visual reproductions.
Upon the Nazi occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps to the summit. The parts to repair them were allegedly impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 German soldiers had to climb to the top to hoist the swastika, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and it was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. A Frenchman scaled the tower during the German occupation to hang the French flag. In August 1944, when the Allies were nearing Paris, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. The lifts of the Tower were working normally within hours of the Liberation of Paris.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)


Panorama under the Eiffel Tower at sunset
Source self-made
Date August 6, 2007
Author IvanAndreevich
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



THE EIFFEL TOWER AS A COLOSSAL LIGHTNING CONDUCTOR
Photograph taken June 3, 1902 at 9.20 p.m. by M. G. Loppé
Published in the Bulletin de la Société Astronomique de France
(May, 1905).
Source: photolib.noaa.gov
Image ID: wea00602, Historic NWS Collection
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The Eiffel tower and the Seine at night
Looking east from the Pont de Grenelle
Northern branch of the RER C travels along the curved train bridge
in the foreground
Author : Sami Dalouche
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Construction view in 1889
The girders of the first story
Source: Engineering. The Paris ExhibitionMay 3
1889 (Vol. XLVII)
London : Office for Advertisements and Publication.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The Eiffel tower
Photo by Brian Tibbets
(www.tibbets.org) October 2007
Source Transferred from en.wikipedia
Date 2008-05-03 (original upload date)
Author Original uploader was Btibbets at en.wikipedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


At 300 meters (320.75m including antenna), and 7000 tons, it was the world's tallest building until 1930. Other statistics include:
2.5 million rivets
300 steel workers, and 2 years (1887-1889) to construct it.
Sway of at most 12 cm in high winds.
Height varies up to 15 cm depending on temperature.
15,000 iron pieces (excluding rivets). 40 tons of paint. 1652 steps to the top.
It was almost torn down in 1909, but was saved because of its antenna - used for telegraphy at that time. Beginning in 1910 it became part of the International Time Service. French radio (since 1918), and French television (since 1957) have also made use of its stature.
During its lifetime, the Eiffel Tower has also witnessed a few strange scenes, including being scaled by a mountaineer in 1954, and parachuted off of in 1984 by two Englishmen. In 1923 a journalist rode a bicycle down from the first level. Some accounts say he rode down the stairs, other accounts suggest the exterior of one of the tower's four legs which slope outward.
(From corrosionsource.com)

Eiffel Tower Pictures Photographs
(From eiffeltowerpictures.net)
Eiffel Tower pictures - Eiffel Tower photo gallery
(From eiffel.tower.gallery.sytes.org)



Photo, view from the tower · Eiffel Tower · Paris, France
Photo by Rose Peck. © Rose Peck
From greatbuildings.com


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