Friday, October 30, 2009

THE WAR OF ATTEMPTED SECESSION




Portrait of President Abraham Lincoln
The Civil War Home Page


Photo of General Ulysses S. Grant
The Civil War Home Page


Portrait of General Robert E. Lee
The Civil War Home Page


The American Civil War, until halfway through the Vietnam War, was bloodier then all other American wars combined. Nearly one million soldiers were killed during its four years. From its ruins, a new freedom would come for millions of Americans previously held in bondage. The nation would pay a great cost for those four years, and the years after were no less turbulent. It would take nearly a century to complete the changes that the war brought about and many feel those changes have not yet been fulfilled.
(A Hollow Argument Southern Nationalism, Myth or Reality By Brian Pulito at civilwarhome.com)


Bodies of dead
Louisiana Regiment
Antietam, Maryland
Library of Congress


Confederate Dead
a Ditch on the Right Wing used as a Rifle Pit
Antietam, MD, September 1862
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Bodies of Confederate Dead
Gathered for Burial
Antietam, MD, September 1862
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Confederate Dead by a Fence
Hagerstown Road
Antietam, MD, September 1862
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Confederate Dead
Behind the Stone Wall of Marye's Heights
Killed During the Battle of Chancellorsville
Fredericksburg, VA, May 1863
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Dead Federal Soldiers on Battlefield
Gettysburg, PA, July 1863
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


A Refugee Family Leaving a War Area
Belongings Loaded on a Cart
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Doctors Examining a Recently Released Federal Prisoner
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Wounded Soldiers Being Tended in the Field
the Battle of Chancellorsville
Near Fredericksburg, VA, May 2, 1863
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


The Shell-Damaged Potter House
Atlanta GA, 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com



Body of a Confederate soldier near Mrs. Alsop's house
Made in 1864 by O'Sullivan, Timothy H.
old-picture.com


Dead Federal Soldier during the American civil war
Petersburg, Virginia, April 1865
Source Library of congress
Author Thomas C Roche at Wikipedia


Burying the Dead
After the Wilderness Campaign
Fredericksburg, VA, May 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Burial of Soldiers
Fredericksburg, VA, May 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Ruins of the Navy Yard at Norfolk, VA
December 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Ruins in Front of the Capitol
Richmond, VA, 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Ruins of Paper Mill with Water Wheel
Richmond, VA, 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Patients in Ward K of Armory Square Hospital
Washington, D.C., August 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


The roots of this tragic conflict go back to the birth of the country. The founding fathers, for all their wisdom, could not solve all the differences between the original thirteen states.
The products of their labors, the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, failed to totally define the relationship between the Federal Government and the States. The slavery question received no more than a partial and temporary solution.
(eHistory Archive)


Slaves in the South
Virginia Group of "contrabands" at Foller's house
Created in 1862 by Gibson, James F., b. 1828
old-picture.com


The Civil War has been given many names: the War Between the States, the War Against Northern Aggression, the Second American Revolution, the Lost Cause, the War of the Rebellion, the Brothers’ War, the Late Unpleasantness. Walt Whitman called it the War of Attempted Secession. Confederate General Joseph Johnston called it the War Against the States. By whatever name, it was unquestionably the most important event in the life of the nation. It saw the end of slavery and the downfall of a southern planter aristocracy. It was the watershed of a new political and economic order, and the beginning of big industry, big business, big government. It was the first modern war and, for Americans, the costliest, yielding the most American fatalities and the greatest domestic suffering, spiritually and physically. It was the most horrible, necessary, intimate, acrimonious, mean-spirited, and heroic conflict the nation has ever known.
Between 1861 and 1865, Americans made war on each other and killed each other in great numbers — if only to become the kind of country that could no longer conceive of how that was possible. What began as a bitter dispute over Union and States' Rights, ended as a struggle over the meaning of freedom in America. At Gettysburg in 1863, Abraham Lincoln said perhaps more than he knew. The war was about a "new birth of freedom."
The Confederate States of America: South Carolina led the way out of the Union on December 20, 1860, and by March 1861, six more states, outraged over Lincoln's election to the presidency and emboldened by South Carolina's example, also seceded: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. After the bombardment of Fort Sumter Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina followed suit, bringing the number of states in the new Confederacy to eleven.
(PBS)


United States in 1861
by George at nisd.net


Abraham Lincoln
The Civil War Home Page


The U.S. Capitol under Construction - 1860
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Inauguration of Mr. Lincoln
Washington, D.C., March 4, 1861
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


After her secession from the Union, South Carolina perceived herself as a sovereign state - the presence of Union forces in an armed fortress whose guns commanded her principal harbor was intolerable as it belied her independence. For President Lincoln the voluntary abandonment of this fortress was equally intolerable as it would be a tacit acknowledgment of South Carolina's independent status.
Lincoln learned that the garrison at Fort Sumter was in trouble on the day he took office in March 1861. The garrison was running out of food and supplies and had no way of obtaining these on shore. The President ordered a relief expedition to sail immediately and informed the Governor of South Carolina of his decision. Alerted, General P.G.T Beauregard, commander of the Confederate military forces, realized he had to quickly force the evacuation of the fort before the relief expedition's arrival. He would try threats first, and if these failed he would bombard the fort into submission.
Fort Sumter returned the Confederate fire. The artillery duel continued throughout April 12 and into the following day. Slowly, the fort was being destroyed. Fire broke out and threatened to explode the gunpowder stored in the fort's magazine. At mid-day on April 13 a white flag of surrender was raised and the garrison evacuated the fort on the 14th. The next day, President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to help put down the rebellion.
(eyewitnesstohistory.com)


General Pierre G.T. Beauregard, CSA
Made between 1860 and 1865


Charleston, S.C. Breach patched with gabions
North wall of Fort Sumter
old-picture.com


Engineers of the 8th New York State Militia - 1861
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Battery at Drill - Ringgold, GA
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Jefferson Davis, 1861
The only President of the Confederate States of America
Wikipedia


Alexander Hamilton Stephen
Vice President of the Confederate States of America
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


The Rubicon had been crossed. The next four years can only be described as an intensely fought conflict between two groups of Americans, each believing their cause was just. Over 380 major engagements were fought across 26 states.
Brother fought brother; almost every family felt the pain of war. Important cities were left in ruins and a generation of young men were much diminished in number.
Americans are still dealing with the original issues addressed by the founding fathers, striving to meet the needs and desires of a large and diverse population. However, the sacrifices of their ancestors, those brave and noble men and women who struggled from Fort Sumter to Appomattox and beyond, helped create the foundation to form an even more perfect union.
(eHistory Archive)


Robert E Lee
General Robert E. Lee
Officer of the Confederate Army
The Civil War Home Page
PBS


In September 1862, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation made ending slavery in the South a war goal, and dissuaded the British from intervening. Confederate commander Robert E. Lee won battles in the east, but in 1863 his northward advance was turned back at Gettysburg and, in the west, the Union gained control of the Mississippi River at the Battle of Vicksburg, thereby splitting the Confederacy.
(© Session Magazine 2008 - 2009)


Scouts and Guides
for the Army of the Potomac
Berlin, MD, October 1862
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Brigade Officers
The Horse Artillery Commanded by Lt Col William Hays
Near Fair Oaks, VA, 1862
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


A Group of Foreign Observers
with General George Stoneman
Falmouth, VA, 1863
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Diplomats at the Foot of an Unidentified Waterfall
NY State, August 1863
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


General U.S. Grant,
Made between 1855 and 1865
old-picture.com


Portrait of General Robert E. Lee
Officer of the Confederate Army
Made in 1863 by Vannerson, Julian
old-picture.com


Abraham Lincoln seated, Feb 9, 1864
16th President of the United States (1861–1865)
Anthony Berger at Wikipedia


Scouts and Guides of the Army of the Potomac
Brandy Station, VA, March 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


A Confederate Napoleon Gun
Defense of Atlanta - 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Commissioned and Noncommissioned Officers
Companies C and D, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry
Petersburg VA, August 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Gen. William T. Sherman
Leaning on Breach of Gun
Federal Fort No. 7 – Atlanta GA, 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Gen. William T. Sherman on Horseback
Federal Fort No. 7 – Atlanta GA, 1864
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


General Charles Thomas
Assistant Quartermaster General
Washington, D.C., 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


A 200 Pound Parrott Rifle
Fort Gregg on Morris Island, SC - 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Captured Siege Guns at Rocketts
Richmond, VA, 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Stacked and Scattered Ammunition
Virginia State Arsenal
Richmond, VA, April 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Long-term Union advantages in men and material were realized in 1864 when Ulysses S. Grant fought battles of attrition against Lee as Union General William Sherman captured Atlanta, Georgia, and marched to the sea. Confederate resistance collapsed after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
The war, the deadliest in American history, caused 620,000 soldier deaths and an undetermined number of civilian casualties, ended slavery in the United States, restored the Union, and strengthened the role of the federal government. The social, political, economic and racial issues of the war decisively shaped the reconstruction era that lasted to 1877, and continued into the 21st century.
(© Session Magazine 2008 - 2009)

Infantry Unit Followed by Ambulances
Pennsylvania Avenue Near the Treasury
Washington, D.C., May 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Grant, U.S. 1865
old-picture.com


Spectators at Side of the Capitol
Hung with Crepe and has Flag at Half-Mast
Washington, D.C., May 1865
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


Grand Review of Union Troops
Looking down Pennsylvania Avenue toward the Capitol
May 23-24, 1865 (drawn 1881)
CivilWarPhotoGallery.Com


President U.S. Grant
Made between 1860 and 1865
old-picture.com