Friday, April 23, 2010

THE TOILS OF THE FRENCH PEASANT




Julien Dupré
From yvanlepape.eu


Some 40 miles away from Paris, Barbizon, a small hamlet of farmers and coal traders bordering the Fontenaibleau forest, became the birthplace of a new form of art: landscape painting.
It was only in 1925 that art historians discovered the importance of the painters belonging to the school of Barbizon thanks to a book written by Prosper Dorbec, "The art of landscape painting in France".
The introduction of lanscapes in paintings was a major phenomenon and those artists who were the pioneers in that new form of art were issued from the people who fought for equal rights during the French Revolution from which originated the bourgeois society of the 19th Century. These painters fought against established institutions and were the standard bearers of a new kind of freedom since they moved away from traditional trends.
While the bourgeois society marked its predominence between 1830 and 1870 , the Barbizon painters tried to find a new way of blossoming their inspiration through nature as well as to find a new soul and identity.
These painters made a complete inventory of nature in finding models among Dutch painters of the 17th Century and British from the 18th and 19 th Century. They also rebelled against the French Academy which was controlled by representatives of the bourgeois society.
Taking the risk of being rejected, facing difficult living conditions, they wanted above all to paint what pleased them. They thus turned their attention to landscape painting, a genre which had been quite neglected in France.
Achille Michallon, Corot's mentor was among those who were the first to follow that path and contrary to certain painters who painted Italian landscapes at the end of the 18th Century, these pioneers instilled in their works a language and a new spirit. They were seduced also by realism and turned their backs to romanticism while seeking a pathetic approach.
(Adrian Darmon, THE SCHOOL OF BARBIZON, 10 January 2007 at ArtCult)
Jules Dupré, French painter, was one of the chief members of the Barbizon school of landscape painters. If Corot stands for the lyric and Rousseau for the epic aspect of the poetry of nature, Dupré is the exponent of her tragic and dramatic aspects……….
Dupré's colour is sonorous and resonant; the subjects for which he showed marked preference are dramatic sunset effects and stormy skies and seas. Late in life he changed his style and gained appreciably in largeness of handling and arrived at greater simplicity in his colour harmonies.....
(Wikipedia)


Eichen am Sumpf
Current location Musée du Louvre, Paris
From Wikimedia


Les moulins à vent
Musée des Beaux-Arts
From VAN.GOGH.FR


Gehöft
Current location Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum Budapest
From Wikimedia


Courtesy of Don Kurtz at ARC
Jules Dupré was born in Nantes on April 5, 1811. His father was a porcelain manufacturer in Parmain – a small village on the shores of the Oise -- and by 1822 Jules was working in the factory decorating plates. In his spare time he painted simple landscape studies from nature and finally traveled to Paris to study with Jean-Michel Diebolt – the landscape and animal painter. In the late 1820’s his father was appointed director of the Coussac porcelain factory near Limoges and Jules took this opportunity to sketch and paint landscapes in this region.
In 1831, at the age of 20, he made his debut at the Salon – showing a number of landscapes and continued to exhibit there sporadically. That same year he was invited to London where he spent time studying the works of the English landscape artists and painting in the English countryside. It is believed that Dupré was responsible for bringing the English landscape style to France and blending it with the style and images of the Barbizon school.
In 1833 he exhibited a number of works at the Paris Salon and received a second-class medal. However, it was the works he exhibited at the Salon of 1835 that solidified his reputation in the hearts and minds of many of the artists of the Romantic school.....
(Rehs Galleries, Inc.)

Courtesy of Don Kurtz at ARC
Julien Dupré was an artist, considered by most, to be one of the leading exponents of the second generation of Realist painters; a group that also includes Leon Lhermitte, Jules Bastien-Lepage and Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret. Like J.F. Millet and J. Breton, before them, these artists devoted their artistic careers to the depiction of the toils of the French peasant - often seen hard at work in the fields. As Hollister Sturges states in Jules Breton and the French Rural tradition (1982, Joslyn Art Museum):
"Salon critics rightly perceived Julien Dupré as Breton's closest follower. Through idealization of form, he invested his peasant women with a heroic aura, though unlike his predecessor, his figures are usually engaged in vigorous action. His landscapes, with their cloudy skies and varied motifs, are also much more active. Their high key color and spontaneous brushwork have a vivacity and freshness that distinguishes them from the somber calm of Breton's scenes."
Dupré's most enduring and powerful image is that of a single, Herculean, female, positioned dramatically and elegantly in the foreground of the painting, pitching hay. His finely modeled figures pay tribute to his academic training, as well as his study of the works of Breton and Bouguereau; while his freer handling of the background areas, at times done with a palette knife, shows the influence of the Impressionists..........
(Julien Dupré: A Survey - Rehs Galleries' exhibition of the artist's work)


The Wheatfield
Oil on canvas, 1893
Rehs Galleries, Inc
From ARC


Haymaking
Oil on canvas
Private collection
From ARC


La Faneuse
The Haymakers
Oil on canvas
Rehs Galleries, Inc.
From ARC


Returning From the Fields
Oil on canvas
Rehs Galleries, Inc.
From ARC


Returning From the Fields
Oil on canvas
Rehs Galleries, Inc.
From ARC


René Ménard wrote in the March 1873 issue of Gazette des Beaux-Arts that:
"Jules Dupré became, almost from his début, one of the favorites in public opinion; his farms, his cottages, his old oaks on the boarders of pools with cows ruminating about, his plentiful pastures where horses run with flowing manes, his mills which profile their silhouettes on a stormy sky, have a simple and truthful side which captivates all the world. The precocity of his success only developed his activity; he is always at work, and gives himself up to incessant production, although he appears but rarely at our expositions … One may have more or less sympathy with the works of Rousseau or with those of Dupré, but these two masters will remain incontestably as the two grandest colorists in landscape which the contemporaneous school has produced.
It was also during this time that he met, and became friends with, Theodore Rousseau. Their friendship would last through the 1840’s and the two not only traveled together throughout the French countryside in search of new subject matter, but also shared a studio where they worked, side by side."
Jules Claretie, a relative of Dupré, made the following comments about the artist and his relationship with Rousseau in The Magazine of Art: "(even at the height of his career, he would carry) his young friend’s pictures from one to another, showing them off, praising them and making three several efforts to have one of Rousseau’s landscapes exhibited at the Salon. He even induced him to leave his attic room in the Rue Taitbout, and took a studio for him, where the two painters, working side by side, produced not a few pictures which will count to the credit of the modern French school."
In 1849 Dupré was awarded the Legion of Honor and by 1852 he stopped exhibiting at the Salon. At a special exhibition that took place in Paris in 1860, Dupré sent a number of works to be displayed. Théophile Gautier reviewed the exhibit and made these comments:
"This exposition is to Jules Dupré a sort of dazzling début, although his fame is already old. For a long time, we know not why, this great artist has sent nothing to the Salon; and if he works, it is in the solitude and silence of the studio. The young generation, who did not see the splendid putting forth of art which followed the revolution of July, is astonished before the pictures of Jules Dupré, by this boldness, this zeal, and this brilliancy. We are no more accustomed to these superb extremes, to this excess of strength, to this overflowing power, to these full-faced struggles with nature. This excessive scale dazzles the eyes habituated to the sober regime of gray."
By the mid 1860’s he began to spend most of the summer months in the coastal town of Cayeux-sur-Mer – painting marine and shore line landscapes. In the late 1860’s Millet joined him during his summer sojourns and in the early 1870’s Courbet could also be found painting in this area.....
Dupré exhibited works at every Salon exhibition from 1876 until his death in 1910 and earned critical acclaim for his depictions of peasant life. He was awarded medals at several Salon Exhibitions and received a Gold Medal at the Exposition Universelle in 1889 for his pictorial representations of the life of the farm worker.
Dupré was very successful during his lifetime both in Europe and the United States. Wealthy American patrons traveled to Paris to acquire his works and they became part of the great collections of the 19th century.....
(Rehs Galleries, Inc.)


La Laitiere
Oil on canvas
Private collection
From ARC


A Milkmaid with her Cows on a Summer Day
Oil on canvas
Private collection
From ARC


A Shepherd and his Flock
Oil on canvas
Private collection
From ARC


Le Berger
Oil on canvas
Private collection
From ARC


La Vachere
Oil on canvas
Private collection
From ARc


La Vachère
Oil on canvas
Private collection
From ARC



1 comment:

Talma said...

Eu não conhecia esse magnífico pintor e simplesmente AMEI!
Lindos seus quadros.
Adorei o post.
Abraços do Brasil!