Sunday, May 9, 2010

HELL BRUEGHEL




Portrait of Pieter Brueghel the Younger
Etching by Anthony van Dyck
From Wikipedia


Pieter Brueghel the Younger or Pieter Brueghel II (1564 or 1565 – October 10, 1636) was a Flemish painter, known for numerous copies after his father Pieter Brueghel the Elder's paintings and nicknamed "Hell Brueghel" for his fantastic treatments of fire and grotesque imagery.
(From Wikipedia)


Pieter Brueghel the Younger
Etching by Anthony Van Dyck


Like the self portrait, Snyders and Philippe Le Roy Van Dyck carefully etched Pieter Brueghel the Younger's head (above). He also went further than these compositions in outlining the figure, which is suggested in loose, open forms. The etching was not elaborated upon by subsequent printmakers. Apart from a borderline and an inscription, Van Dyck's etched lines were never strengthened with burin work. A preparatory chalk drawing exists in the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, suggesting that Van Dyck drew Brueghel from life. Van Dyck depicts Pieter in a contemplative mood, alone with his own thoughts. He wears a ruff and rests his arm in the folds of a cloak. With this pose, together with the Roman-like apparel, the scroll of paper in his hand and the pillar in the background, Van Dyck achieves the desired level of intellectual dignity for his sitter.
(The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge)


Pieter Brueghel the Younger
Etching by Anthony Van Dyck


Absolutely no changes have been made to Van Dyck's portrait since the first state (above). The only changes to the plate are the additions of a borderline, signature line and title. This print is from an album entitled "Van Dyck Etchings and their states, by an Amateur". A note in the beginning of the album explains that it is a unique, deluxe edition of photogravures of Van Dyck's etchings, being the only one printed on drawing paper and furnished with twenty-seven impressions of the etchings and 'doubtful' attributions.
(The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge)
The famous Brueghel (broy'-guhl) dynasty of painters begins with Pieter Bruegel the Elder, who is recognized as one of the greatest artists in 16th-century northern Europe. His son, Pieter Brueghel the Younger is known primarily as a copyist of his father, his work often providing the only evidence of lost compositions by the elder Bruegel. His brother, Jan Breughel the Elder or 'Velvet Breughel' became one of the most important Flemish artist's of the first half of the 17th-century, and his work was collected in many of the Royal European courts. The sons of both Pieter the Younger and Jan the Elder were successful artists in their own right.
(CHRISTIE’S)
His father died in 1569, when Pieter the younger was only five years old. Then, following the death of his mother in 1578, Pieter, along with his brother Jan Brueghel the Elder and sister Marie, went to live with their grandmother Mayken Verhulst (widow of Pieter Coecke van Aelst). She was an artist in her own right, and according to Carel van Mander, possibly the first teacher of the two sons.
(From Wikipedia)

From Dali House
Pieter Brueghel the Younger is particularly famous for his detailed scenes of peasant life, landscapes and religious subjects. His works are noted for their large number of figures, usually peasants; this is especially evident in his marriage and fair scenes, which give a realistic interpretation of contemporary Flemish festivals.
He was a true inheritor of his father's name and reputation, as were his nephews Jan Brueghel the Younger (1601-1678) and Ambrosius Brueghel (1617-1675).....
The work of Pieter Brueghel the Younger is represented in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, the Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
(richard-green.com)


Adoration of the Magi
Oil on panel, c. 1600
Museo Correr, Venice
From Wikimedia



Adoration of the Magi (details)
Tempera on oak panel
National Gallery, Prague
From Web Gallery of Art


The Bird Trap
Oil on panel
Private collection
From Web Gallery of Art


Battle of Carnival and Lent
Oil on wood
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
From Web Gallery of Art


Village Feast
Oil on wood
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
From Web Gallery of Art


Peasant Wedding Dance
Oil on panel, 1607
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
From Web Gallery of Art


Massacre of the Innocents
Oil on panel transferred to canvas, 1610
Private collection
From Web Gallery of Art


The Wedding Dance in a Barn
Oil on oak panel, c. 1616
Private collection
From Web Gallery of Art


Village Lawyer
Oil on panel, 1621
Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Ghent
From Web Gallery of Art


The Seven Acts of Charity
Source allartpainting.com
From Wikimedia


Proverbs
Oil on canvas
Rockox House, Antwerp
From Wikimedia


The Flemish Proverbs (above) illustrates 104 proverbs and sayings and depicts a larger theme of the world as it should not be. The oil on canvas painting is overflowing with vignettes and is based on a painting by the artist’s father, Pieter Brueghel the Elder, signed and dated 1559.
(Adelphi University)
He made more than twenty copies of this painting, one of which, created in 1610, was exhibited at the Fleming Museum. The Netherlandish Proverbs is filled with references to 16th- century visual culture presented in a humorous manner, at the same time that it warns against foolish behavior and addresses the relationship of the individual to society. Many of the proverbs and proverbial expressions are familiar to us today, such as "swimming against the tide," "big fish eat little fish," or "throwing roses before swine." Others are no longer in use, such as to "carry a basket full of daylight" (to devote oneself to unnecessary labor), or to "have one's roof covered in tarts" (to have an abundance of everything).
(FLEMING MUSEUM, University of Vermont


Netherlandish Proverbs
"The World Turned Upside Down"
From Martin Beek's photostream at flickr





Netherlandish Proverbs
"The World Turned Upside Down" (details)
From Martin Beek's photostream at flickr


"The world turned upside down" (above) depicts life in a typical village. It is an illustration of the folly of mankind. I have put a note on a few of the nearly 100 proverbs that are known to be depicted in this complex work. Some do not translate exactly, but one can get an idea of what's going on. It strikes me that very little has changed in four hundred years. This is a copy by Brueghel the younger of his father's work which was in Berlin. Netherlandish Proverbs (also called The Blue Cloak or The Topsy Turvy World) is a 1559 oil-on-oak-panel painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder which depicts a land populated with literal renditions of Flemish proverbs of the day. The picture is overflowing with references and most of the representations can still be identified; while many of the proverbs have either been forgotten or never made the transition to the English language, some are still in use. Proverbs were popular during Bruegel's time: a number of collections were published including a famous work by Erasmus. Frans Hogenberg had produced an engraving illustrating about 40 proverbs in around 1558 and Bruegel himself had painted a collection of Twelve Proverbs on individual panels by 1558 and had also produced Big Fish Eat Little Fish in 1556, but Netherlandish Proverbs is thought to be the first large scale painting on the theme. Rabelais depicted a land of proverbs in his novel Pantagruel soon after in 1564.
Bruegel's paintings have themes of the absurdity, wickedness and foolishness of mankind, and this painting is no exception. The picture was originally entitled The Blue Cloak or The Folly of the World which indicates he was not intending to produce a mere collection of proverbs but rather a study of human stupidity. Many of the people depicted show the characteristic blank features which Bruegel used to portray fools. Pieter Brueghel the Younger, specialised in making copies of his father's work painted up to twenty copies of Netherlandish Proverbs. Not all versions of the painting, by father or son, show exactly the same proverbs, also differing in other details. (Martin Beek at flickr)


A winter landscape with peasants skating
( Winter Landscape with Skaters), 1616
(From ARTINFO)


The composition of Pieter Brueghel the Younger's splendid winter landscape (above) is closely based upon a lost drawing by Hans Bol (1534-1593). Bol was both a draftsman and painter, and an accomplished watercolorist (waterschilderen). Many of his drawings were made into prints by engravers such as Hieronymous Cock and Phillip Galle, and in 1570, a year after the death of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hieronymus Cock published a series of four engravings depicting The Four Seasons. These had been commissioned by the elder Bruegel, and were to be after compositions that he was working on. The drawing for Spring, in the Albertina, is dated 1565, that for Summer 1568. However, Brueghel the Younger was unable to complete all four drawings before his death, and Cock turned to Hans Bol to supply Autumn and Winter in time to publish his engravings in 1570. Neither of Bol's drawings survives. Ertz notes that the present painting is the earliest dated version of this composition.
Both Pieter Brueghel the Younger and Abel Grimmer used the series as the basis for paintings, Grimmer generally remaining more rigorously faithful to the original drawing/engraving. The present picture shows some of the younger Brueghel's adaptations. For example, Cock and Grimmer depict a circular island with a tall conifer to the right of the castle. Brueghel introduces the footprints in the snow in the left foreground, whereas Grimmer shows the snow apparently untrod. Brueghel retains Cock's fallen branch in the foreground, adding some twigs: these are present in this picture, slightly altered in number and position. Also, the composition and appearance of the buildings in the right background are Brueghel's adaptations, as are the large windows in the castle, and the absence of men working in the fields in the left background.
(CHRISTIE’S)
Although his father died when he was somewhere between the ages of one and three, Pieter Brueghel’s work has always been overshadowed by his more famous father’s artistic legacy. Even today the very limited academic literature about his work focuses almost entirely on the ways in which his works are direct copies, or reflect distinct elements, of the elder Bruegel’s work. The works of his younger brother, Jan, who inherited this same legacy, have escaped this treatment to a much greater degree, probably because he moved away from his father’s subjects into studies of still lifes (particularly of flowers) and landscapes. In addition, his collaboration with Pieter Paul Rubens has given him a more individual reputation. Yet Pieter the Younger produced a vast number of paintings which warrant serious study on their own merits. Most are free of the almost overpowering complexity of his father’s religious and moralistic symbolism and, in part because of this, have great appeal to today’s more secular viewers.....
(Paula J. LaPierre at Concordia Undergraduate Journal of Art History)


Peasant Wedding Feast
By Pieter Brueghel the Elder
From DePauw University


Wedding Feast in a Barn
By Pieter Brueghel the Younger
From DePauw University


The Triumph of Death
By Pieter Brueghel the Elder
From DePauw University


The Triumph of Death
By Pieter Brueghel the Younger
From DePauw University


Pieter Brueghel the Younger often distributed many small figures over a large landscape depicting allegorical drawings of virtues and vices. In his last years Breughel used fewer and larger figures such as 'The Blind Leading the Blind'.
(hyperhistory.com)


Parable of the blind
Gleichnis von den Blinden
(From Wikipedia)


All the Bruegel dynasty’s works, which covered three generations, should be seen within the context of the flourishing of Flemish art in the seventeenth century. At this time the Netherlands were in the midst of a thriving economic boom, though one that would be disrupted to some extent by the violent attacks on the local movement to gain political independence from Spain, imposed by King Philip II and carried out by the Duke of Alva beginning in 1568.
(Paula J. LaPierre at Concordia Undergraduate Journal of Art History)



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