Tuesday, June 15, 2010

VIENNA SEZESSION




Gustave Klimt
Photo by Dora Kallmus
Source leopoldmuseum.org
Author Madame d’Ora
From Wikipedia


The work of the Austrian painter and illustrator Gustav Klimt, b. July 14, 1862, d. Feb. 6, 1918, founder of the school of painting known as the Vienna Sezession, embodies the high-keyed erotic, psychological, and aesthetic preoccupations of turn-of-the-century Vienna's dazzling intellectual world.
He has been called the preeminent exponent of ART NOUVEAU. Klimt began (1883) as an artist-decorator in association with his brother and Franz Matsoh. In 1886-92, Klimt executed mural decorations for staircases at the Burgtheater and the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna; these confirmed Klimt's eclecticism and broadened his range of historical references. Klimt was a cofounder and the first president of the Vienna Secession, a group of modernist architects and artists who organized their own exhibition society and gave rise to the SECESSION MOVEMENT, or the Viennese version of Art Nouveau. He was also a frequent contributor to Ver Sacrum, the group's journal.
(WebMuseum , Paris)
Klimt's work is often distinguished by elegant gold or coloured decoration, spirals and swirls, and phallic shapes used to conceal the more erotic positions of the drawings upon which many of his paintings are based. This can be seen in Judith I (1901), and in The Kiss (1907–1908), and especially in Danaë (1907). One of the most common themes Klimt used was that of the dominant woman, the femme fatale.
Art historians note an eclectic range of influences contributing to Klimt's distinct style, including Egyptian, Minoan, Classical Greek, and Byzantine inspirations. Klimt was also inspired by the engravings of Albrecht Dürer, late medieval European painting, and Japanese Rimpa school. His mature works are characterized by a rejection of earlier naturalistic styles, and make use of symbols or symbolic elements to convey psychological ideas and emphasize the "freedom" of art from traditional culture.


Portion of Klimt’s painting Medicine
1900-1907
Source artchive.com


The Klimt University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings, also known as the Faculty Paintings, were a series of paintings made by Gustav Klimt for the ceiling of the University of Vienna's Great Hall between the years of 1900-1907. In 1894, Klimt was commissioned to paint the ceiling. Upon presenting his paintings, Philosophy, Medicine (above) and Jurisprudence, Klimt came under attack for 'pornography' and 'perverted excess' in the paintings. None of the paintings would go on display in the university. In May 1945 all three paintings were destroyed by retreating SS forces.
(Wikipedia)


Margarethe Stonborough-Wittgenstein
Wedding portrait in 1905
Current Location Neue Pinakothek, München
Source The Yorck Project
From Wikipedia


Margarethe "Gretl" Stonborough-Wittgenstein (September 19, 1882, Neuwaldegg - September 27, 1958, Vienna), of the prominent and wealthy Viennese Wittgenstein family, was a sister of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and the pianist Paul Wittgenstein. She liked mathematics and psychoanalysis. She was the subject of a famous 1905 portrait by the artist Gustav Klimt: it was sold in 1960 by her son Thomas.....
(Wikipedia)


Portrait der Fritza Riedler, 1905
Source The Yorck Project
Current Location Österreichische Galerie, Vienna
From Wikipedia


The Republic of Austria v. Altmann:
Maria Altmann (born February 18, 1916), was a Jewish refugee of Nazi Austria, who lived in the Netherlands briefly before moving to California. Her ultimately successful attempts to regain five Gustav Klimt paintings owned by her family that had been stolen by the Nazis during World War II made international headlines more than five decades after the war's end, and involved the courts of two nations.
In 2000 she filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Central District of California under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA). The case, Republic of Austria v. Altmann, ended up in the Supreme Court of the United States, which ruled in 2004 that Austria was not immune from such a lawsuit. After this decision, Altmann and Austria entered non-binding arbitration. On 16 January 2006, the arbitration court ruled that Austria is legally required to return the art to Altmann. Because both sides agreed to abide by the ruling of the arbitrator, Austria has returned the works.

The 5 works in contention are:


Buchenwald/Birkenwald
Oil on canvas, 1903
Current Location Neue Galerie der Stadt
Wolfgang-Gurlitt-Museum, Linz
Source The Yorck Project
From Wikipedia


Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I
Oil, silver, and gold on canvas, 1907
Neue Galerie in New York City
Source The Yorck Project
From Wikipedia


Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (above) is a painting by Gustav Klimt completed in 1907. According to press reports it was sold for US135 million to Ronald Lauder for his Neue Galerie in New York City in June 2006, which made it at that time the most expensive painting ever sold. It has been on display at the gallery since July 2006.
Klimt took three years to complete the painting. It measures 138 x 138 cm and is made of oil and gold on canvas, showing elaborate and complex ornamentation as seen in the Jugendstil style.....The picture was painted in Vienna and commissioned by Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer. As a wealthy industrialist who had made his fortune in the sugar industry, he sponsored the arts and favored and supported Gustav Klimt. Adele Bloch-Bauer became the only model who was painted twice by Klimt when he completed a second picture of her, Adele Bloch-Bauer II, in 1912.
(Wikipedia)


Apfelbaum I, 1912
From Wikipedia


Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer II
Oil on canvas, 1912
Current Location Österreichische Galerie, Vienna
Source The Yorck Project
From Wikipedia


Adele Bloch-Bauer was the wife of Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer, who was a wealthy industrialist who sponsored the arts and supported Gustav Klimt. In November 2006, Christie's auction house sold "Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer II" at auction for US88 million, the third-highest priced piece of art at auction at the time.
(Wikipedia)


Häuser in Unterach am Attersee, 1916
From Wikipedia


The 5 paintings (above) were estimated to be collectively worth at least US150 million when returned. In monetary terms it represents the largest single return of Nazi-looted art in Austria. The paintings left Austria in March 2006 and were on display at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art until June 30, 2006. There were attempts by Austrians to buy some of the works back.
The sale of the painting Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907) to cosmetics magnate Ronald Lauder for US135 million was at the time the highest sum ever paid for a painting. The painting has been on display in Lauder's New York City Neue Galerie since July 13. Originally the four additional works by Klimt were included in the exhibition.
In November 2006, Adele Bloch-Bauer II (1912) was sold at auction at Christie's in New York fetching almost US88 million. In total the four remaining paintings sold for US192.7 million U.S. and the proceeds were divided up among several heirs, some of whom are Canadian.
(Wikipedia)


The Kiss
Oil and gold leaf on canvas, 1907-1908
Current Location Österreichische Galerie, Vienna
Source The Yorck Project
From Wikipedia


Porträt der Mäda Gertrude Primavesi (1903-2000)
Oil on Canvas, 1912
Current Location Privatsammlung, N.Y
Source The Yorck Project
From Wikipedia


Gustave Klimt left a Legacy:
• Klimt's work had a strong influence on the paintings of Egon Schiele, whom he would collaborate with to found the Kunsthalle (Hall of Art) in 1917, to try and keep local artists from going abroad.
• National Public Radio reported on January 17, 2006 that "The Austrian National Gallery is being compelled by a national arbitration board to return five paintings by Gustav Klimt to a Los Angeles woman, the heir of a Jewish family that had its art stolen by the Nazis. The paintings are estimated to be worth at least $150 million."
• Klimt's work has spawned many reinterpretations, including the works of Slovak artist Rudolf Fila.
• Couturier John Galliano found inspiration for the Christian Dior Spring-Summer 2008 haute couture collection in Klimt's work.
• Romanian poet Sebastian Reichmann has published in 2008 a book called Mocheta lui Klimt (Klimt's Carpet). As the author says in an interview and even in one of the poems from the book, the title was inspired by a carpet from a train he often attended, carpet that reminded him of Klimt's paintings. Also, the front cover depicts an Art Nouveau-styled passage from Bucharest.
• South Korean novelist Kim Young-ha frequently refers to Klimt, particularly Judith, in his first novel I Have The Right To Destroy Myself. One of the main characters in this novel is referred to by the other characters as Judith because of her resemblance to Klimt's painting and is thus also known primarily as Judith to the reader.
(Wikipedia)



No comments: